• Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
  • Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.
  • Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
  • Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
  • Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
  • Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
  • Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.
  • Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
  • Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
  • Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
  • Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
  • Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
  • Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
  • Animals: Unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain EUKARYOTA.
  • Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
  • Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
  • Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
  • Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
  • Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
  • Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
  • Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.
  • Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
  • Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
  • Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
  • Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.
  • Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)
  • Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.
  • Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
  • Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.
  • Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.
  • Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
  • Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
  • Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
  • Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
  • Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
  • Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
  • Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
  • Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
  • Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
  • Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
  • Peripherins: Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.
  • Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
  • Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).
  • Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
  • Mice: The common name for the genus Mus.
  • Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
  • Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
  • Reflex, Acoustic: Intra-aural contraction of tensor tympani and stapedius in response to sound.
  • Hearing Tests
  • Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
  • Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
  • Nature: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
  • Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
  • Child, Preschool: A child between the ages of 2 and 5.
  • Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
  • Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
  • Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
  • Mice, Inbred CBA
  • Equipment Design
  • Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
  • Vestibular Function Tests
  • Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
  • Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Stapes Surgery
  • Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
  • Ossicular Prosthesis: An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.
  • Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
  • Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
  • Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
  • Rats: The common name for the genus Rattus.
  • Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
  • Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
  • Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organsims.
  • Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
  • Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
  • Young Adult: A person between 19 and 24 years of age.
  • Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
  • Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
  • Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
  • Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
  • Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, practicability, etc., of these interventions in individual cases or series.
  • Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
  • Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.
  • Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
  • Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
  • Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
  • Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
  • Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
  • Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
  • Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
  • Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
  • Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
  • Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
  • Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
  • Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
  • Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
  • Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
  • Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Cochlear amplifier: The cochlear amplifier is a positive feedback mechanism within the cochlea that provides acute sensitivity in the mammalian auditory system. The main component of the cochlear amplifier is the Outer Hair Cell (OHC) which increases the amplitude and frequency selectivity of sound vibrations using electromechanical feedback.EABR: EABR refers to electrically Evoked Auditory Brain stem Responses in reference to cochlear implants. EABR results are used in the development and refinement of the cochlear implant technology.Administrative distance: Administrative distance is the measure used by Cisco routers to select the best path when there are two or more different routes to the same destination from two different routing protocols. Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol.Otoacoustic emission: An otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a sound which is generated from within the inner ear. Having been predicted by Thomas Gold in 1948, its existence was first demonstrated experimentally by David Kemp in 1978Kemp DT.Labeo porcellus: Labeo porcellus is fish in genus Labeo.Organ of Corti: The organ of Corti (or spiral organ) is the organ in the inner ear found only in mammals that contains auditory sensory cells, or "hair cells."Definition of Organ of Corti - Merriam Webster - Retrieved 30 April 2012.Spiral ganglionSound Blaster AudigyPerilymphPure tone audiometryPre-attentive processing: Pre-attentive processing is the unconscious accumulation of information from the environment.Atienza, M.Ultrasonic hearing: Ultrasonic hearing is a recognised auditory effect which allows humans to perceive sounds of a much higher frequency than would ordinarily be audible using the physical inner ear, usually by stimulation of the base of the cochlea through bone conduction. Human hearing is recognised as having an upper bound around 17-20 kHz, depending on the person, but ultrasonic sinusoids as high as 120 kHz have been reported as successfully perceived.Auditory brainstem response: The auditory brainstem response (ABR) is an auditory evoked potential extracted from ongoing electrical activity in the brain and recorded via electrodes placed on the scalp. The resulting recording is a series of vertex positive waves of which I through V are evaluated.Mechanotransduction: Mechanotransduction refers to the many mechanisms by which cells convert mechanical stimulus into chemical activity. Mechanotransduction is responsible for a number of senses and physiological processes in the body, including proprioception, touch, balance, and hearing.Prestin: Prestin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A5 (solute carrier anion transporter family 26, member 5) gene.Meriones (genus): Meriones is a rodent genus that includes the gerbil most commonly kept as a pet, Meriones unguiculatus. The genus contains most animals referred to as jirds, but members of the genera Sekeetamys, Brachiones, and sometimes Pachyuromys are also known as jirds.Tack shop: A tack shop is an equestrian supply store. Buyers may purchase various pieces of riding equipment and training aids, as well as boots and riding apparel, stable equipment, horse care products, grooming supplies, horse blankets and sheets, model horses, and equine books, magazines, and videos.Absolute threshold of hearing: The absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) is the minimum sound level of a pure tone that an average ear with normal hearing can hear with no other sound present. The absolute threshold relates to the sound that can just be heard by the organism.Membranous labyrinth: The receptors for the senses of equilibrium and hearing are housed within a collection of fluid filled tubes and chambers known as the membranous labyrinth. The membranous labyrinth is lodged within the bony labyrinth and has the same general form; it is, however, considerably smaller and is partly separated from the bony walls by a quantity of fluid, the perilymph.Galileo (vibration training): Galileo (in the US also available as Vibraflex) is a brand of vibration training platforms used as exercise equipment as well as for therapeutic use. It consists of a vibration platform which vibrates sinusoidal side alternating like a see-saw.Alaris: Alaris is the brand name of the regional rail network run by the Spanish national rail company RENFE that connects the major cities of Madrid and Valencia, and Barcelona and the main cities of the Valencian community. Alaris services currently use ETR 490 trainsets, as well as S-120 and S-130 units.Endolymph: Endolymph is the fluid contained in the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. It is also called Scarpa's fluid, after Antonio Scarpa.Bast fibreView-Master Personal Stereo Camera: The View-Master Personal Stereo Camera was a 35mm film camera designed to take 3D stereo photos for viewing in a View-Master. First released in 1952, the camera took 69 pairs of photos on a 36 exposure roll 35mm film, taking one set while the film was unwound from the canister, and another set while it was rewound.Time-compressed speech: Time-compressed speech is a technique used, often in advertising, to make recorded speech contain more words in a given time, yet still be understandable.Basilar membrane: The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea, the scala media and the scala tympani (see figure).Orbiting Frog OtolithChinchilla rabbit: The Chinchilla rabbit is a rabbit breed. There are three breeds of Chinchilla rabbit recognized by the ARBA.Progressive osseous heteroplasiaTranscranial direct-current stimulation: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation which uses constant, low current delivered directly to the brain area of interest via small electrodes. tDCS was originally developed to help patients with brain injuries such as strokes.Psychoacoustics: Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of sound perception. More specifically, it is the branch of science studying the psychological and physiological responses associated with sound (including speech and music).Block cellular automaton: A block cellular automaton or partitioning cellular automaton is a special kind of cellular automaton in which the lattice of cells is divided into non-overlapping blocks (with different partitions at different time steps) and the transition rule is applied to a whole block at a time rather than a single cell. Block cellular automata are useful for simulations of physical quantities, because it is straightforward to choose transition rules that obey physical constraints such as reversibility and conservation laws.Outline of crafts: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to crafts:Middle ear: The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. The mammalian middle ear contains three ossicles, which couple vibration of the eardrum into waves in the fluid and membranes of the inner ear.AcousticsMastoid part of the temporal bone: The mastoid portion of the temporal bone forms the posterior part of the temporal bone.Speech perception: Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood. The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonetics and in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology.Helicopter noise reduction: Helicopter noise reduction is a topic of research into designing helicopters which can be operated more quietly, reducing the public-relations problems with night-flying or expanding an airport. In addition, it is useful for military applications in which stealth is required: long-range propagation of helicopter noise can alert an enemy to an incoming helicopter in time to re-orient defenses.Response priming: In the psychology of perception and motor control, the term response priming denotes a special form of Priming. Generally, priming effects take place whenever a response to a target stimulus is influenced by a prime stimulus presented at an earlier time.Dim spot: In reflection seismology, a dim spot is a local low amplitude seismic attribute anomaly that can indicate the presence of hydrocarbons and is therefore known as a direct hydrocarbon indicator. It primarily results from the decrease in acoustic impedance contrast when a hydrocarbon (with a low acoustic impedance) replaces the brine-saturated zone (with a high acoustic impedance) that underlies a shale (with the lowest acoustic impedance of the three), decreasing the reflection coefficient.Vibrato systems for guitar: A variety of mechanical vibrato systems for guitar have been developed since the 1930s. They are used to add vibrato to the sound by changing the tension of the strings, typically at the bridge or tailpiece of an electric guitar using a controlling lever (often referred to as a whammy bar, vibrato arm/bar, or tremolo arm/bar).MC3T3: MC3T3 is a strain of tissue culture cells derived from Mus musculus (mouse)Synthetic molecular motor: Synthetic molecular motors are molecular machines capable of rotation under energy input. Although the term "molecular motor" has traditionally referred to a naturally occurring protein that induces motion (via protein dynamics), some groups also use the term when referring to non-biological, non-peptide synthetic motors.Reverberation: Reverberation is the persistence of sound in a particular space after the original sound is produced. A reverberation, or reverb, is created when a sound is produced in an enclosed space causing a large number of echoes to build up and then slowly decay as the sound is absorbed by the walls and air.Immittance: Immittance in electrical and acoustical terminology is a concept combining the impedance and admittance of a system or circuit. The term was invented by Bode.Hearing testLyapunov exponent: In mathematics the Lyapunov exponent or Lyapunov characteristic exponent of a dynamical system is a quantity that characterizes the rate of separation of infinitesimally close trajectories. Quantitatively, two trajectories in phase space with initial separation \delta \mathbf{Z}_0 diverge (provided that the divergence can be treated within the linearized approximation) at a rate given byGlass electrode: A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion. It is an important part of the instrumentation for chemical analysis and physico-chemical studies.Druid (character class): In role-playing games, a druid is a character class that is generally portrayed as using nature-based magical abilities and striving to protect nature from civilized intrusion. Druid characters tend to have abilities that involve healing, weather or plant related spells, summoning animal allies, and shapeshifting.Disposal of human corpses: Disposal of human corpses is the practice and process of dealing with the remains of a deceased human being. Human corpses present both a sanitation and public health risk.GeForce 8 Series: The GeForce 8 Series, is the eighth generation of NVIDIA's GeForce line of graphics processing units. The third major GPU architecture developed at NVIDIA, the GeForce 8 represents the company's first unified shader architecture.Texas Department of Aging and Disability ServicesSending loudness rating: The sending loudness rating (SLR) is a measure of the loudness of the transmit audio sent through the microphone of a communication device (for example, a mobile phone). It compares the amplitude of the sound waves into the microphone to the resulting audio signal.Bone conduction auditory brainstem response: Bone-conduction auditory brainstem response or BCABR is a type of auditory evoked response that records neural response from EEG with stimulus transmitted through bone conduction.Petrissage: Petrissage (from French pétrir, "to knead") are massage movements with applied pressure which are deep and compress the underlying muscles. Kneading, wringing, skin rolling and pick-up-and-squeeze are the petrissage movements.Cable-stayed bridge: A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck.Cricket pitch: 350px|thumb|right|Cricket pitch (not to scale)Visual guide: When applied to building block a website or similar work product, a Visual Guide can be an intermediate step toward the end goal of a complete website. By creating a visual guide along the way, the designer or developer can get buy-in from the other people involved in the website such as the customer, their manager and other members of the team.Real-time simulation: Real-time simulation refers to a computer model of a physical system that can execute at the same rate as actual "wall clock" time. In other words, the computer model runs at the same rate as the actual physical system.Volume CT: Flat-panel Volume CT is a technique under development to make computed tomography images with improved performance (in particular, with improved spatial resolution). The key difference between volume CT and traditional CT is that volume CT uses a two-dimensional x-ray detector orientation (usually in a square panel orientation), to take multiple two-dimensional images.Range Safety and Telemetry System: Range Safety and Telemetry System (RSTS) is a GPS based, S-band telemetry receiving and UHF command destruct system, with two 5.4-meter telemetry and command destruct auto-tracking antennas.Boreoeutheria: Boreoeutheria (synonymous with Boreotheria) (Gk: ?????? North + ????? Beast) is a clade (magnorder) of placental mammals that is composed of the sister taxa Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires (Supraprimates). It is now well supported by DNA sequence analyses as well as retrotransposon presence/absence data.Auditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.Issues in fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, also known as ƒMRI, is a neuroimaging technique that measures the blood oxygenation, also called BOLD, that accompanies neuronal activity. The blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI has relatively high spatial resolution (of the order of a few millimetres), but lower temporal resolution (a few seconds), in comparison to other neuroimaging methods.Air interface: In mobile or wireless communication, the air interface is the radio-based communication link between the mobile station and the active base station. In GSM/UMTS, the various UTRA standards are air interfaces, and are also (but not exclusively) referred to as "access modes".Fancy rat: The fancy rat is a domesticated brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), which is the most common type of pet rat. The name fancy rat derives from the idea of animal fancy or the phrase "to fancy" (to like, or appreciate).Nanoelectromechanical system: Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) are devices integrating electrical and mechanical functionality on the nanoscale. NEMS form the logical next miniaturization step from so-called microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS devices.Clinical cardiac electrophysiology: Cardiac Electrophysiology (also referred to as clinical cardiac electrophysiology, Arrhythmia Services, or electrophysiology), is a branch of the medical specialty of clinical cardiology and is concerned with the study and treatment of rhythm disorders of the heart. Cardiologists with expertise in this area are usually referred to as electrophysiologists.Atrial action potential: In electrocardiography, the atrial action potential are action potentials that occur in the heart atrium. They are similar to ventricular action potential with the exception of having a more narrow phase 2 (plateau phase) due to a smaller calcium influx.Foliation: In mathematics, a foliation is a geometric device used to study manifolds, consisting of an integrable subbundle of the tangent bundle. A foliation looks locally like a decomposition of the manifold as a union of parallel submanifolds of smaller dimension.Human Condition: DoleoXANES: X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), also known as Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) is a type of absorption spectroscopy.Motion (legal): In United States law, a motion is a procedural device to bring a limited, contested issue before a court for decision. A motion may be thought of as a request to the judge (or judges) to make a decision about the case.Digital Signal Designation: Digital Signal Designation is the classification of digital bit rates in the digital multiplex hierarchy used in transport of signals from one location to another in telecommunications.Generalized canonical correlation: In statistics, the generalized canonical correlation analysis (gCCA), is a way of making sense of cross-correlation matrices between the sets of random variables when there are more than two sets. While a conventional CCA generalizes principal component analysis (PCA) to two sets of random variables, a gCCA generalizes PCA to more than two sets of random variables.Contrarian investing: In finance, a contrarian is one who attempts to profit by investing in a manner that differs from the conventional wisdom, when the consensus opinion appears to be wrong.Computed tomography dose index: The computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is a commonly used radiation exposure index in X-ray computed tomography and is reported by the CT manufacturers to scan personnel for each exam. The CTDI can be used in conjunction with patient size to determine the absorbed dose.Veto: A veto, Latin for "I forbid", is the power of an officer of the state to unilaterally stop an official action, especially enactment of a piece of legislation.List of algorithms: The following is a list of algorithms along with one-line descriptions for each.X-ray computed tomographyBioelectrical impedance analysis: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition, and in particular body fat. Since the advent of the first commercially available devices in the mid-1980s the method has become popular owing to its ease of use, portability of the equipment and its relatively low cost compared to some of the other methods of body composition analysis.Proband: Proband, or propositus, is a term used most often in medical genetics and other medical fields to denote a particular subject (person or animal) being studied or reported on. On pedigrees, the proband is noted with an arrow and the box (male) or circle (female) shaded accordingly.Input capture: Input capture is a method of dealing with input signals in an embedded system.Finite element method in structural mechanics: The Finite element method (FEM) is a powerful technique originally developed for numerical solution of complex problems in structural mechanics, and it remains the method of choice for complex systems. In the FEM, the structural system is modeled by a set of appropriate finite elements interconnected at points called nodes.Gromov's compactness theorem (topology): In symplectic topology, Gromov's compactness theorem states that a sequence of pseudoholomorphic curves in an almost complex manifold with a uniform energy bound must have a subsequence which limits to a pseudoholomorphic curve which may have nodes or (a finite tree of) "bubbles". A bubble is a holomorphic sphere which has a transverse intersection with the rest of the curve.Secondary mutation: In the fictional Marvel Universe, secondary mutation is a global phenomenon among mutants that seems inexplicable, with many previously established mutant characters suddenly developing new or vastly expanded powers. Henry McCoy hypothesizes that, since the mutant population was entering the millions at that time, mutant physiology was responding to the need for survival.Mental literacy: Mental literacy is a pseudoscientific and popular psychological term coined by Tony Buzan.Jakoba: Jakoba is a member of the genus Excavata and currently has only 1 described species, Jakoba libera. (Previously described Jakoba incarcerata has been renamed Andalucia incarcerata, and ‘Jakoba bahamensis’ /’Jakoba Bahamiensis’ is not formally described.

What kind of earphones will damage my ears the least?

I am 15 and listen to loud music on my iPod a lot, and the ear doctor told me that the vibrations from the music were killing the tiny hairs on my cochlea, so are there any earphones that would be better for my ears than the ones I use now (standard apple earphones) Thanks :-)

I would say, many studies have indicated that they all are the same. However, the government of France has imposed a limit on all music players sold in the country: they must not be capable of producing more than 100dBA (the threshold of hearing damage during extended listening is 80dB, and the threshold of pain, or theoretically of immediate hearing loss, is 130dB)
So...... since France is nearly (or so I think) is the only nation that limits the dBA of these products, you should buy earphones from France (you are a Brit, you know, shipping wouldn't be expensive)

BUT, instead of all the ruckus, why don't you just lower the volume? My brother is just like you! Honestly, I tried it once (for 1 second!) And my ears hurt like hell! Did you know that a British study revealed that listening to loud music for 5+ hours a week is EXTREMELY DANGEROUS and can result in temporary or PERMANENT hearing impairment or deafness?

Keep it safe!  (+ info)

what is cochlea disorder?

The inner ear structure called the cochlea is a snail-shell like structure divided into three fluid-filled parts. Two are canals for the transmission of pressure and in the third is the sensitive organ of Corti, which detects pressure impulses and responds with electrical impulses which travel along the auditory nerve to the brain. Located in the area of the ear where nerves are contained, its function is to gather electrical signals from sound vibrations and transmit them to your auditory nerve (or hearing nerve). The hearing nerve then sends these signals to the brain, where they're translated into recognizable sounds. If important parts of the cochlea aren't working properly and the hearing nerve isn't being stimulated, there's no way for the electrical signals to get to the brain. Therefore, hearing doesn't occur. (Sometimes referred to as nerve deafness, this is called sensorineural hearing loss.)


It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.

The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

Hope this helps
matador 89  (+ info)

Can a damaged Cochlea be a result of childhood ear infections?

As a child I had lots of ear infections. I also have moderate hearing loss. I was told that I have a problem with my cochlea. I have been thinking and wondering to myself if this was from my childhood or maybe I was born this way.
If you don't have a clue don't post anything. I'm tired of people making posts that are not answers.
I just had the usual antibiotics. I am 23 now. I vaguely remember having the infections. They all happened before I was in kindergarten, possibly earlier.
The reason why I'm asking is because the audiologist told me that my ear drum looks perfectly normal, without any scaring so I never ruptured my ear drum. In the test she ran she found that my middle ear bones work fine as well. I also respond well to my hearing aids which says that my auditory nerves function well. So she narrowed it down and told me that my cochlea is not working as it should.

  (+ info)

Physiologically, what makes people cringe when they hear fingernails on a blackboard?

Is it some kind of latent instinct from time immemorial? Or simply a reaction our cochleas have when exposed to those particular waves?

there is reflex that related to hearing(acoustic reflex) but it is irrelevant to your question.

i believe, it relates to our unconscious, which is induce the feeling of scream caused by pain!  (+ info)

Is there a cure for Hearing Impairment ?

I know that stem cell research holds promising possibilities for regrowing cochlea nerves. But the US has had restrictions on stem cell funding the past 8 years Bush was in office. I have a hearing loss and am curious if any other countries have found a cure.

currently there is cochlear implants these are somewhat controversial and probably something that you should talk over with your doctor and family. But yeah stem cell research is relatively new and it could be a couple of years before something concrete or miraculous comes out.  (+ info)

I was hit directly in my ear, and I suddenly lost my hearing. Is there any medicine I can use to fix this?

I found some information online that said I could have damaged my cochlea. It just happened and I have not been to the doctor yet. What should I do in the mean time to help get my hearing back?

no medicine until you go see a doctor. You could have ruptured your eardrum and have some infection also going on now. You do not want to play with hearing loss so I suggest you go to see a doctor and if you can't afford on go to the hospital. Most hospitals will give you free help once you go over your income. Don't let that stop you. Your hearing is very important.  (+ info)

when you have ear ringing, can the sound of the ear ringing itself hurt your ears?

i have ringing in my right ear, and im wonderind if that constant ring can cause damage, just like a hihgh pitched sound would, or is the ringing just an illusion of sorts(your eardrum isnt actually picking up or making any sound, you just hear it) beacuase im wondering if its actual sound, or an illusion sent to your brain from your cochlea

Yep - What Calli said is pretty much correct. Another way to put it is that the damage is already done, at the nerve level. There isn't actually any real sound causing the ringing sensation, so it can't cause further damage.

One important thing to watch out for - since there has already been some injury to the cilia and nerves, it'll be easier for loud noises to cause more damage. If you like loud music, use firearms or work in a very noisy environment you'd be smart to start wearing something like those foam or soft rubber ear plugs. You can find them in Walgreen's, WalMart or almost any pharmacy. I'm not kidding. I learned the hard way.  (+ info)

I am 23 and hearing loss my whole life I was wondering if the have some new surgeries or a site i can look at?

microscopic hairs on my cochleas are laying down rather than standing erect to catch the full effect of vibrations passing through the ear canal. I was wondering if there is some new and improved surgeries out there (hopefully on the east coast) somewhere to correct this problem. Or at least a website that might lead me in the right direction.

have you researched Cochlear Implants?

  (+ info)

  Ask a Question: