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Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Salivary Gland DiseasesAdrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Sebaceous Gland Diseases: Diseases of the sebaceous glands such as sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous cell carcinoma (SEBACEOUS GLAND NEOPLASMS).Sweat Gland Diseases: Diseases of the SWEAT GLANDS.Dacryocystitis: Inflammation of the lacrimal sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Eyelid DiseasesSubmandibular Gland DiseasesMeibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSalivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseMyelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.

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Metabolic Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Gonadal Disorders. Epinephrine. Racepinephrine. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: 21-hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia ... Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Growth Disorder Drug: Flutamide and Testolactone Drug: Deslorelin Phase 1 ... Three Drug Combination Therapy Versus Conventional Treatment of Children With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia. This study has ...
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Adrenal glands of female fetuses with CAH begin producing excess testosterone by the 9th week of gestation. The most important ... Abnormalities of body image due to the effects of the disease likely play a role in the sexual development of these women, and ... 2007). "Testicular adrenal rest tumors and Leydig and Sertoli cell function in boys with classical congenital adrenal ... Infertility observed in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been associated with testicular adrenal rest ...
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*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency - Wikipedia
... recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. All of ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which ... Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal insufficiency Disorders of sexual development ... Also like the other forms of CAH, 11β-OH CAH is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. 11β-Hydroxylase mediates the final ...
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Adrenal Gland Disease Adrenal Gland Tumors Adrenal Glands in Humans Diseases of the Adrenal Gland ... Diseases of the Adrenal Glands. Health. The adrenal glands are small, endocrine organs located just above each kidney. They are ... The disease is caused by a tumor, or by an enlargement of the adrenal gland due to another disease process, such as cirrhosis ... Two of the major hormones secreted by the adrenal glands are cortisol and aldosterone. With Addison's disease, the adrenals are ...
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Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System ... Virilizing Adrenal Tumor. Feminizing Adrenal Tumor. Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease. Adrenal Gland Tumor. ... Adrenal Cancer Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland ACTH-independent Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia ... MedlinePlus related topics: Adrenal Gland Cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adrenocortical ...
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Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System ... Virilizing Adrenal Tumor. Feminizing Adrenal Tumor. Massive Macronodular Adrenocortical Disease. Adrenal Gland Tumor. ... Adrenal Gland Cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's ... The adrenal glands, located atop the kidneys, normally produce several types of hormones. Tumors of these glands may or may not ...
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Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism ... Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Syndrome. Alcoholism. Cushing Syndrome. Adrenocortical Adenoma. Disease. Pathologic Processes. Alcohol ... Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Dexamethasone acetate. Dexamethasone. BB 1101. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Antiemetics. Autonomic Agents ...
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*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Adrenal glands of female fetuses with CAH begin producing excess testosterone by the 9th week of gestation. The most important ... Abnormalities of body image due to the effects of the disease likely play a role in the sexual development of these women, and ... 2007). "Testicular adrenal rest tumors and Leydig and Sertoli cell function in boys with classical congenital adrenal ... Infertility observed in adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) has been associated with testicular adrenal rest ...
*  Development of the endocrine system
At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of ... congenital heart disease, and improper organ development. The reproductive system begins development at four to five weeks of ... At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing ... The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of ...
*  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency
... recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal glands. All of ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) which ... Inborn errors of steroid metabolism Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal insufficiency Disorders of sexual development ... Also like the other forms of CAH, 11β-OH CAH is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease. 11β-Hydroxylase mediates the final ...
*  Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), in which the hypothalamus and pituitary gland control adrenal secretions, ... Adrenal insufficiency Addison's Disease Cortisol Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Glucocorticoids Marik PE, Pastores SM, ... In acute states of severe stress, cortisol secretion by the adrenal gland increases up to sixfold, parallel to the severity of ... Moreover, in patients whose adrenal glands are already maximally stimulated, a stimulation test would not be informative. ...
*  Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs
All layers of the adrenal gland stop functioning; the problem is with the adrenal gland. This causes a deficiency of both ... Bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia (e.g. lymphosarcoma), granulomatous disease, or arterial thrombosis ... the problem is not in the adrenal gland but in the pituitary gland. Usually, the anterior portion of the pituitary gland ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ...
*  Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Similar to the adrenal gland, cholesterol accumulation damages the Leydig cells of the testes. In the ovary, the damage begins ... The adrenals are large and filled with lipid globules derived from cholesterol. This inherited disease is autosomal recessive. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasias are a family of autosomal recessive diseases resulting from defects in steps of the synthesis ... Also of note, enlargement of the adrenal gland is not always found in the patient, especially in cases where a mutation in the ...
*  Edmund von Neusser
Diseases of the adrenal glands. Die Gallensteine, in: Deutsche Klnik, Bd. 5, 105 - Gallstones. Ausgewählte Kapitel der ... He specialized in disorders of the blood, circulatory system, liver and adrenal glands, and was considered an excellent ...
*  Adrenal gland
A number of endocrine diseases involve disfunctions of the adrenal gland. Overproduction of cortisol leads to Cushing's ... The adrenal medulla is at the centre of each adrenal gland, and is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The chromaffin cells of ... The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including ... Adrenal gland at the Human Protein Atlas MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 002219 Adrenal gland histology Virtual Slidebox at Univ. Iowa ...
*  Adrenal gland disorder
... s (or diseases) are conditions that interfere with the normal functioning of the adrenal glands. Adrenal ... for a reason directly related to the adrenal gland itself, such as auto-immune damage to the adrenal gland or adrenal gland ... Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, a disease in which the adrenal glands do not produce sufficient ... There are two parts of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces ...
*  Hypoaldosteronism
Addison's disease Adrenal gland Hyperaldosteronism Pseudohypoaldosteronism Becker, Kenneth L. (2001). Principles and practice ... The two hormones are both produced by the adrenals.) There are several causes for this condition, including adrenal ... Aldosterone synthase deficiency Secondary Aldosterone deficiency Secondary adrenal insufficiency Diseases of the pituitary or ... Primary Aldosterone deficiency Primary adrenal insufficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21 and 11β but not 17) ...
*  PRKACA
Mutations in the PRKACA gene that promote abnormal enzyme activity have been linked to disease of the adrenal gland. Several ... Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ... It has been speculated that abnormally high levels of PKA phosphorylation contributes to heart disease. This affects excitation ... Defective regulation of PKA holoenzyme activity has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease, certain endocrine ...
*  Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient. In Cushing's disease a pituitary tumor ... leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency (a form of hypocorticism) Addison's disease, the primary adrenal insufficiency ( ... Diseases of the pituitary, the gland that produces, among others, the hormone ACTH Hypopituitarism, the hyposecretion of ACTH ... hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of ...
*  Adrenal cortex
... due to Addison's disease) Cushing's syndrome Conn's syndrome Adrenal gland "Embryology of the adrenal gland". Retrieved 2007-12 ... Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... Cholesterol is transported into the adrenal gland. The steps up to this point occur in many steroid-producing tissues. ... The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals. Its ...
*  Nelson's syndrome
... is a rare disorder and occurs in patients who have had both adrenal glands removed owing to Cushing's disease ... and well as symptoms of other diseases to narrow down which disease the patient presents with. The patient should be questioned ... The disease becoming less prevalent is supported by much advancement in the medical field. Within the past ten to twenty years ... The onset of the disease can occur up to 24 years after a bilateral adrenalectomy has been performed, with an average of up to ...
*  Absent adrenal gland
Fung, M. M.; Viveros, O. H.; O'Connor, D. T. (16 November 2007). "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2 ... Absent adrenal gland is a rare condition where the adrenal gland is absent at birth. It should not be confused with adrenal ... SF-1 plays a role in the development of adrenal gland. Single gene polymorphism involving SF-1 gene may have a role in adrenal ... Pakravan, P; Kenny, FM; Depp, R; Allen, AC (January 1974). "Familial congenital absence of adrenal glands; evaluation of ...
*  Stretch marks
... "adrenal gland diseases". Pregnancy stretch marks, also known as striae gravidarum, is a specific form of scarring of the skin ... as well as other medical conditions and diseases, may increase the likelihood of stretch marks appearing. In the case of ... 2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. http://www.mayoclinic.org/ ... diseases-conditions/stretch-marks/basics/causes/con-20032624 Korgavkar, K; Wang, F (March 2015). "Stretch marks during ...
*  Vitiligo
Addison's disease (typically an autoimmune destruction of the adrenal glands) may also be seen in individuals with vitiligo. An ... Addison's disease, pernicious anemia, alopecia areata, systemic lupus erythematosus, and celiac disease. Among the inflammatory ... Descriptions of a disease believed to be vitiligo date back to a passage in the medical text Ebers Papyrus circa 1500 BC in ... It is much more stable/static in course and its association with autoimmune diseases appears to be weaker than that of ...
*  Agostino Gemelli University Polyclinic
... adrenal gland and pituitary gland. The mortality rate for cardiac surgery is among the lowest in Italy. In 2015, in ... The Endocrinology-Metabolic Diseases Area has clinical-surgical units specialised in managing the main endocrine and metabolic ... The hospital boasts one of Italy's leading case statistics in terms of management and medical-surgical therapy for diseases of ... "Institute of Infectious Diseases" and "Centre for the Medicine of Aging". In the early 2000s, a new building was added to the ...
*  Emphysematous cystitis
... surgery is only considered in severe cases where the disease progresses involving the ureters, kidneys, or adrenal glands. When ... The disease most commonly affects elderly diabetic and immunocompromised patients (Sereno). The first case was identified in a ... The treatment of underlying comorbid diseases, such as diabetes, is extremely important because they can intensify the ... "Emphysematous Cystitis: An Unusual Disease of the Genito-Urinary System Suspected on Imaging." Annals of Clinical Microbiology ...
*  George W. Thorn
... was an American physician whose contributions lead to new treatments of kidney diseases and adrenal gland disorders, most ... Thorn pioneered the use of cortisone for treating Addison's disease, and devised an early test for this disease, now known as ... His research of cortisone and ACTH led to new treatments of other diseases such as hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis and ... Krug, Nora (July 18, 2004). "George Thorn, 98, Pioneer In Addison's Disease, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, ...
*  13q deletion syndrome
... adrenal glands, thymus, gallbladder, and thyroid; Hirschsprung's disease; gastric reflux, imperforate anus, retention testis, ... 13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disease caused by the deletion of some or all of the large arm of human chromosome 13. ... Congenital heart disease is associated with 13q deletion syndrome. Common defects include atrial septal defect, tetralogy of ...
*  Addison's disease
... arises from problems with the adrenal gland such that not enough of the steroid hormone cortisol and possibly ... celiac disease, or vitiligo. Addison's disease may be the only manifestation of undiagnosed celiac disease. Both diseases share ... Patnaik MM, Deshpande AK (May 2008). "Diagnosis-Addison's Disease Secondary to Tuberculosis of the Adrenal Glands". Clinical ... Adrenal destruction is also a feature of adrenoleukodystrophy, and when the adrenal glands are involved in metastasis (seeding ...
*  Weakness
... and is probably most marked in diseases of the adrenal gland. Asthenia may be limited to certain organs or systems of organs, ... Asthenia (Greek: ἀσθένεια, lit lack of strength but also disease) is a medical term referring to a condition in which the body ... True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and ... True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and ...
*  Thomas Addison
Among other pathologies, he discovered Addison's disease (a degenerative disease of the adrenal glands) and Addisonian anemia ( ... Addison's disease, sometimes called bronze skin disease, is the progressive destruction of the adrenal glands with the result ... but not due to Addison's disease, that is, not due to any disease of the adrenal glands Addisonian anemia or Addison-Biermer ... He also made seminal contributions to the recognition and understanding of many other diseases, including; Alibert's disease I ...
*  Ferret
Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system. Viral diseases include canine ... respiratory diseases such as SARS and human influenza, airway physiology, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease. Because ... Most pet ferrets in the US are sold de-scented (anal glands removed). In many other parts of the world, including the UK and ... As with skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell is much less potent and ...
*  Sex steroid
Natural sex steroids are made by the gonads (ovaries or testes), by adrenal glands, or by conversion from other sex steroids in ... Thakur, MK; Paramanik, V (2009). "Role of steroid hormone coregulators in health and disease". Hormone research. 71 (4): 194- ...
*  Ferret health
Adrenal disease, a growth of the adrenal glands that can be either hyperplasia or cancer, is most often diagnosed by signs like ... It has also been suggested that there may be a hereditary component to adrenal disease. Adrenal disease is usually detected ... Among the most common are cancers affecting the adrenal glands, pancreas, and lymphatic system. Viral diseases include canine ... which treat the symptoms but not the disease itself, and/or hormone therapy. The causes of adrenal disease are as yet uncertain ...

(1/202) In vivo evidence that endogenous dopamine modulates sympathetic activity in man.

Dopamine receptors type 2 (D2)-like receptor blockers cause an increase in the norepinephrine response to intense physical exercise. However, during intense physical exercise, D2-like antagonists also cause an increase in the epinephrine response, which itself might cause an increase in plasma norepinephrine through the activation of beta2 presynaptic receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of domperidone, a D2-like antagonist, on the norepinephrine response to physical exercise in 6 Addison patients (3 were adrenalectomized and 3 had adrenal tuberculosis). In these patients, the norepinephrine increase observed during exercise was significantly higher after the administration of domperidone than a placebo (F=4,328; P<0.001). Because peripheral plasma norepinephrine does not reflect the sympathetic tone to the heart accurately, we evaluated the effect of domperidone administration (20 mg orally) on the sympathovagal balance, which was measured by the ratio between the high- and low-frequency components of heart rate variability, in 9 normal volunteers in the supine and sitting positions. When compared with placebo, domperidone caused a significant increase in the low/high frequency ratio (P<0.05) in the sitting position without modifying basal and stimulated norepinephrine plasma levels or blood pressure. These data support a role for endogenous dopamine in modulating norepinephrine release by human sympathetic nerves in vivo.  (+info)

(2/202) Traumatic adrenal injury in children.

BACKGROUND: Multiple organ injury in children is an increasingly frequent phenomenon in the modern emergency room. Adrenal hemorrhage associated with this type of trauma has received little attention in the past. OBJECTIVES: Using computed tomography, we sought to determine the rate and nature of adrenal gland injury in children following blunt abdominal trauma due to motor vehicular accident. METHODS: A total of 121 children with blunt abdominal trauma were examined and total body CT was performed in cases of multi-organ trauma or severe neurological injury. RESULTS: Of all the children who presented with blunt abdominal trauma over a 51 month period, 6 (4.95%) had adrenal hemorrhage. In all cases only the right adrenal gland was affected. Coincidental injury to the chest and other abdominal organs was noted in 66.7% and 50% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Traumatic adrenal injury in the pediatric population may be more common than previously suspected. Widespread application of the more sophisticated imaging modalities available today will improve the detection of damage to the smaller organs in major collision injuries and will help in directing attention to the mechanism of trauma.  (+info)

(3/202) A case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

A low plasma ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and an exaggerated and delayed plasma ACTH response to CRH stimulation have been considered as an indicator of hypothalamic hypopituitarism. We report a case of hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency which manifested normal ACTH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. This case provides important information to categorize hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency caused by abnormal regulation of CRH release.  (+info)

(4/202) Apparently normal ovarian differentiation in a prepubertal girl with transcriptionally inactive steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) and adrenocortical insufficiency.

Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1/SF-1) plays an essential role in the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, controlling expression of their many important genes. The recent description of a 46,XY patient bearing a mutation in the NR5A1 gene, causing male pseudohermaphroditism and adrenal failure, demonstrated the crucial role of SF-1 in male gonadal differentiation. The role of SF-1 in human ovarian development was, until now, unknown. We describe a phenotypically and genotypically normal girl, with signs and symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and no apparent defect in ovarian maturation, bearing a heterozygote G-->T transversion in exon 4 of the NR5A1 gene that leads to the missense R255L in the SF-1 protein. The exchange does not interfere with protein translation and stability. Consistent with the clinical picture, R255L is transcriptionally inactive and has no dominant-negative activity. The inability of the mutant (MUT) NR5A1/SF-1 to bind canonical DNA sequences might offer a possible explanation for the failure of the mutant protein to transactivate target genes. This is the first report of a mutation in the NR5A1 gene in a genotypically female patient, and it suggests that NR5A1/SF-1 is not necessary for female gonadal development, confirming the crucial role of NR5A1/SF-1 in adrenal gland formation in both sexes.  (+info)

(5/202) Endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 111 consecutive cases.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (ERA). SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy has become the procedure of choice for benign adrenal pathology. Although the adrenal glands are located in the retroperitoneum, most surgeons prefer the transperitoneal laparoscopic approach to adrenal tumors. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of 111 ERAs from January 1994 to December 1999 were evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients underwent 111 ERAs (79 unilateral, 16 bilateral). Indications were Cushing syndrome (n = 22), Cushing disease (n = 8), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome (n = 6), Conn's adenoma (n = 25), pheochromocytoma (n = 19), incidentaloma (n = 11), and other (n = 4). Tumor size varied from 0.1 to 8 cm. Median age was 50 years. Unilateral ERA required 114 minutes, with median blood loss of 65 mL. Bilateral ERA lasted 214 minutes, with median blood loss of 121 mL. The conversion rate to open surgery was 4.5%. The complication rate was 11%. Median postoperative hospital stay was 2 days for unilateral ERA and 5 days for bilateral ERA. The death rate was 0.9%. At a median follow-up of 14 months, the recurrence rate of disease was 0.9%. CONCLUSION: For benign adrenal tumors less than 6 cm, ERA is recommended.  (+info)

(6/202) Evaluation of incidental renal and adrenal masses.

Incidental renal or adrenal masses are sometimes found during imaging for problems unrelated to the kidneys and adrenal glands. Knowledgeable family physicians can reliably diagnose these masses, thereby avoiding unnecessary worry and procedures for their patients. A practical and cost-efficient means of evaluating renal lesions combines ultrasonography and computed tomographic scanning, with close communication between the family physician and the radiologist. Asymptomatic patients with simple renal cysts require no further evaluation. Patients with minimally complicated renal cysts can be followed radiographically. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in patients with indeterminate renal masses, and referral is required in patients with symptoms or solid masses. The need for referral of patients with adrenal masses is determined by careful assessment of clinical signs and symptoms, as well as the results of screening laboratory studies and appropriate radiologic studies. Referral is indicated for patients with incidental adrenal masses more than 6 cm in greatest diameter. Appropriate laboratory screening tests include the following: a 24-hour urinary free cortisol measurement for patients with evidence of Cushing's syndrome; a 24-hour urinary metanephrine, vanillylmandelic acid or catecholamine measurement for patients with evidence of pheochromocytoma; and a serum potassium level for patients with evidence of hyperaldosteronism.  (+info)

(7/202) Adrenal gland: structure, function, and mechanisms of toxicity.

The adrenal gland is one of the most common endocrine organs affected by chemically induced lesions. In the adrenal cortex, lesions are more frequent in the zona fasciculata and reticularis than in the zona glomerulosa. The adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones with a 17-carbon nucleus following a series of hydroxylation reactions that occur in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Toxic agents for the adrenal cortex include short-chain aliphatic compounds, lipidosis inducers, amphiphilic compounds, natural and synthetic steroids, and chemicals that affect hydroxylation. Morphologic evaluation of cortical lesions provides insight into the sites of inhibition of steroidogenesis. The adrenal cortex response to injury is varied. Degeneration (vacuolar and granular), necrosis, and hemorrhage are common findings of acute injury. In contrast, chronic reparative processes are typically atrophy, fibrosis, and nodular hyperplasia. Chemically induced proliferative lesions are uncommon in the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla contains chromaffin cells (that produce epinephrine, norepinephrine, chromogranin, and neuropeptides) and ganglion cells. Proliferative lesions of the medulla are common in the rat and include diffuse or nodular hyperplasia and benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Mechanisms of chromaffin cell proliferation in rats include excess growth hormone or prolactin, stimulation of cholinergic nerves, and diet-induced hypercalcemia. There often are species specificity and age dependence in the development of chemically induced adrenal lesions that should be considered when interpreting toxicity data.  (+info)

(8/202) New adrenal-scanning agent.

A new adrenal-specific compound, 6beta-iodomethyl-19-norcholest-5(10)-en-3beta-ol(NCL-3-I), which is derived from 19-iodocholesterol (CL-19-I), has been found. Tissue distribution studies have revealed that the rat adrenal gland accumulates ten times more NCL-6-131-I than CL-19-131-I. The advantage of NCL-6-131-I as a possible adrenal-scanning agent is discussed.  (+info)


  • especially
  • Steroid precursors up to and including progesterone, 17α-hydroxypregnenolone, and especially 17α-hydroxyprogesterone accumulate in the adrenal cortex and in circulating blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • DOC is a weak mineralocorticoid, but usually reaches high enough levels in this disease to cause effects of mineralocorticoid excess: salt retention, volume expansion, and hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • it may also be used for genetic studies related to the disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The patients will have a 24-hour urine collection, and part of the adrenal gland tissue removed for their treatment will be used for research purposes of this study, possibly including genetic study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Vitiligo has been proposed to be a multifactorial disease with genetic susceptibility and environmental factors both thought to play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • 13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disease caused by the deletion of some or all of the large arm of human chromosome 13. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both diseases share the same genetic risk factors (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 haplotypes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissue
  • Cells in this layer form oval groups, separated by thin strands of connective tissue from the fibrous capsule of the gland and carry wide capillaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • medications
  • Some medications also lead to malfunction of the adrenals. (medindia.net)
  • Examples of cases where stretch marks are common, also given by the Mayo Clinic, include weight gain (in the form of fat and/or muscle), pregnancy, and adolescent growth spurts, though it is also noted that some medications, as well as other medical conditions and diseases, may increase the likelihood of stretch marks appearing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes include certain medications, sepsis, and bleeding into both adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretions
  • and, alternatively, other disease states can lead to excessive secretions. (checkbiotech.org)
  • Like many other mustelids, ferrets have scent glands near their anus, the secretions from which are used in scent marking. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ferrets can recognize individuals from these anal gland secretions, as well as the sex of unfamiliar individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with skunks, ferrets can release their anal gland secretions when startled or scared, but the smell is much less potent and dissipates rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • bilateral
  • The advancements mentioned prior are what have allowed physicians to pursue other routes for Cushing's disease therapy that don't involve bilateral adrenalectomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nelson's syndrome is observed in 8-44% of the population who have undergone bilateral adrenalectomy treatment for Cushing's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, not all patients that have had a total bilateral adrenalectomy develop Nelson's syndrome, which makes the mechanism harder to understand for such a rare disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Increased activity of the adrenal nerves is done through the receptors for the corticotropin-releasing factor within the ganglia within the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prostate
  • Prostate cancer is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most people with prostate cancer do not end up dying from the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • On the other hand, LECT2 amyloidosis represents an important but at present very much under-recognized cause of chronic kidney disease in the cited ethnic groups and, possibly, other ethnic groups yet to be deteremined. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortisol
  • The dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is used to assess adrenal gland function by measuring how cortisol levels change in response to an injection of dexamethasone. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The gene has numerous single nucleotide variants as well as other variations, some of which have been associated with human disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LDLR gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations of the genes VHL, RET, NF1 (Gene 17 Neurofibromatosis type 1), SDHB and SDHD are all known to cause familial pheochromocytoma, therefore this disease may be accompanied by Von Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis, or familial paraganglioma depending on the mutation. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • For older people (over 50 years old) and people with known or suspected ischemic heart disease, levothyroxine therapy should not be initiated at the full replacement dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Diseases associated with IL17RD include Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism 18 With Or Without Anosmia and Kallmann Syndrome . (genecards.org)
  • However
  • However, LECT2's relationships to these diseases requires much further study before they can be regarded as established and clinically useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • normal
  • In the two crystal structures of normal human G6P, Pro172 is seen exclusively in the cis confirmation, while in the crystal structure of one disease causing mutant (variant Canton R459L), Pro172 is seen almost exclusively in the trans confirmation. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • Based on the figures presented by the Center for Disease Avoidance and Control, suicide ranks third among the most common factors behind death for young people ages 15-24. (amandabrayman.com)
  • In those in whom the disease has spread to the bones, pain medications, bisphosphonates and targeted therapy, among others, may be useful. (wikipedia.org)
  • functions
  • These findings indicate that LECT is an evolutionary conserved protein, has one or more important functions, and may be involved in various diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Within the brain, reception of a signal for a stressor by the hypothalamus leads to an increase in activity of the sympathoadrenal system, essentially within the nerves that send signals to the adrenal glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Other common findings, although not part of the APS classification criteria, are low platelet count, heart valve disease, and livedo reticularis. (wikipedia.org)