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*  Asclepias syriaca - Wikispecies
Familia: Apocynaceae. Subfamilia: Asclepiadoideae. Tribus: Asclepiadeae. Subtribus: Asclepiadinae. Genus: Asclepias. Species: ...
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Asclepias_syriaca
*  Supplemental data to 'The genome and transcriptome of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca): resources for evolutionary,...
Apocynaceae_gene_families.zip. 2017-12-07. Public. Press to Select an action * Download ... and molecular studies in milkweeds and Apocynaceae' Public Deposited ... other Apocynaceae, coffee (Coffea), and grape (Vitis). ... and molecular studies in milkweeds and Apocynaceae". OSU ...
https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/datasets/vd66w525h
*  Apocynaceae
Key to Apocynaceae. Previous taxon: Yabea microcarpa. Next taxon: Amsonia. Name Search ... Apocynaceae. Habit: Annual, perennial herb, shrub, tree, often vine; sap generally milky. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, ... Citation for this treatment: Thomas J. Rosatti 2013, Apocynaceae, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 1, ... Pattern of carpel fusion (carpels free in ovule-bearing region, fused above), present +- throughout Apocynaceae (in broad sense ...
http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=50
*  Apocynaceae - Wikispecies
Apocynaceae in World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published ... USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Apocynaceae in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. ... Familia: Apocynaceae. Subfamiliae: Apocynoideae - Asclepiadoideae - Periplocoideae - Rauvolfioideae - Secamonoideae Genera: ... An updated classification for Apocynaceae. Phytotaxa 159(3): 175-194. doi: 10.11646/phytotaxa.159.3.2 Full text PDF from ...
https://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Apocynaceae
*  Apocynaceae Pest Insects
... Publications. * Tetrio Sphinx, Giant Gray Sphinx, Frangipani Hornworm, Pseudosphinx tetrio (Linnaeus ...
https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_apocynaceae_pest_insects
*  Apocynaceae dictionary definition | apocynaceae defined
apocynaceae definition: Proper noun 1. A taxonomic family within the order Gentianales - many tropical and subtropical latex- ... apocynaceae. Proper noun *A taxonomic family within the order Gentianales - many tropical and subtropical latex-bearing plants ... Of the Apocynaceae the rubber plants are the most important.. *This arrangement is characteristic of the flower-buds of ... How would you define apocynaceae? Add your definition here.. Please enable JavaScript to view the comments powered by Disqus.. ...
http://www.yourdictionary.com/apocynaceae
*  Apocynaceae in Chinese Plant Names @ efloras.org
Apocynaceae A. L. Jussieu 夹竹桃科 Description from Flora of China. Trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely subshrubs or herbs, with latex ... Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some ... Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.. (Authors: Li Ping-tao; Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, David J. Middleton) ...
http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=3&taxon_id=10053
*  The phylogenetic position of milkweeds (Apocynaceae subfamilies S...: Ingenta Connect
Keywords: AFRICA; APOCYNACEAE; ASCLEPIADACEAE; BIOGEOGRAPHY; CPDNA; PHYLOGENY; PHYTOCHROME A; POWER ANALYSIS Document Type: ... The nuclear gene phytochrome A (PHYA) from 71 species of crown clade Apocynaceae (subfamilies Asclepiadoideae, Secamonoideae, ... Other relationships among the primary crown clade Apocynaceae lineages are also not supported statistically, but power analysis ... The phylogenetic position of milkweeds (Apocynaceae subfamilies Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae): Evidence from the nucleus ...
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2010/00000059/00000004/art00003
*  Brachystelma ananthapuramense (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), a new species from Andhra Pradesh, India | SpringerLink
Apocynaceae) from the Seshachalam hills of Andhra Pradesh (India). Nord. J. Bot. 34: 360 - 363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Venu, P. & Prasad, K. (2015). The existential crisis in Indian Brachystelma (Apocynaceae). Curr. Sci. 109(4): 680 - 682.Google ... Bruyns, P. V., Klak, C. & Hanacek, P. (2015). Recent radiation of Brachystelma and Ceropegia (Apocynaceae) across the Old World ... Surveswaran, S., Kamble, M. Y., Yadav, S. R. & Sun, M. (2009). Molecular phylogeny of Ceropegia (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12225-018-9740-y
*  Whitish flowers - pictures of Asclepias Subulata, Apocynaceae - wildflowers of West USA
Pictures of apocynaceae wildflowers of West USA. Whitish flowers of asclepias subulata, at the Desert Botanical Garden, Phoenix ... Keywords: Apocynaceae, Asclepias Subulata, Arizona, wildflowers, rush milkweed, yellow flowers, plants. License/purchase this ...
http://www.americansouthwest.net/plants/wildflowers/asclepias-subulata4_l.html
*  Apocynaceae - Wikipedia
Pachypodium (Apocynaceae): taxonomy, habitats and cultivation. Balkema. pp. 1-82. ISBN 978-90-5410-485-8. Apocynaceae in BoDD ... Some genera of Apocynaceae, such as Adenium, have milky latex apart from their sap, and others, such as Pachypodium, have clear ... Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines, commonly called the ... This is true of many contained in species of plants from the Apocynaceae family, which include several that are extremely ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocynaceae
*  A Review of the Ethnobotany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae)
Boonein (5) is a C-9 monoterpenoid α-lactone, isolated from the bark of A. boonei (Apocynaceae). The structure was established ... Apocynaceae)," Indian Journal of Chemistry B, vol. 23, no. 5, p. 455, 1984. View at Google Scholar ... A Review of the Ethnobotany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae). John Prosper Kwaku Adotey, ... Alstonia boonei De Wild belongs to the family Apocynaceae. The species are scattered all over the world of which two are ...
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/587160/
*  Map of Apocynaceae - The Full Wiki
The Apocynaceae or dogbane family is a family of flowering plant that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, and lianas.. Many species ... Some genera of Apocynaceae, such as Adenium however, have either clear and milky, latex sap, and others, such as Pachypodium, ... The family Asclepiadaceae is now, according to AGP II included in the Apocynaceae (Endress & Bruyns, 2000).. There are five ... The former two sub-families were part of the Apocynaceae sensu stricto, whilst the latter three sub-families used to belong to ...
http://maps.thefullwiki.org/Apocynaceae
*  Cardenolides from Gomphocarpus sinaicus and Pergularia tomentosa (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) deter the feeding of Spodoptera...
Apocynaceae, sub-family Asclepiadoideae) deterred feeding of Spodoptera littoralisin a binary-choice bioassay.... ... Calactin Calotropin Coroglaucigenin Cynanchum Gomphocarpus Pergularia Feeding deterrence Spodoptera Apocynaceae Asclepiadoideae ... Methanol extracts of Gomphocarpus sinaicus, Pergularia tomentosa and Cynanchum acutum (Apocynaceae, sub-family Asclepiadoideae ... Cardenolides from Gomphocarpus sinaicus and Pergularia tomentosa (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) deter the feeding of Spodoptera ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11829-011-9131-x
*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Headspace Volatile Composition of the Flowers of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae)
Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island were analyzed by a headspace GC method. The analyses allowed the identification and ... Apocynaceae). Carmen Formisano 1, Felice Senatore 1, Giovanna Della Porta 2, Mariarosa Scognamiglio 2, Maurizio Bruno 3, ... Apocynaceae). Molecules 2009, 14, 4597-4613. AMA Style. Formisano C, Senatore F, Della Porta G, Scognamiglio M, Bruno M, Maggio ... Apocynaceae). Molecules. 2009; 14(11):4597-4613. Chicago/Turabian Style. Formisano, Carmen; Senatore, Felice; Della Porta, ...
http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/14/11/4597
*  Pharmacobotanic characterization of young stems and stem barks of Rauvolfia sellowii Müll. Arg., Apocynaceae
Apocynaceae). Phytochemistry, v.60, p.315-320, 2002. [ Links ]. KOCH, I. Estudos das espécies neotropicais do gêneroRauvolfia L ... LARROSA, C.R.R. Morfoanatomia foliar e caulinar de espécies medicinais de Apocynaceae: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson, ... COSTA, C.G.; COSTA, E.L. Plumeriopsis ahouai (L.) Rusby et Woodson, Apocynaceae. Considerações anatômicas. Arq. Jard. Bot. Rio ... In the Apocynaceae, the vascular system is typically bi-collateral in stems, with the internal phloem always present, forming a ...
http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-82502010000300020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
*  Flora of Turkey, Apocynaceae - Wikipedia
This article describes Flora of Turkey that belong to the Apocynaceae family of flowering plants. Amsonia Decne. Bluestar ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flora_of_Turkey,_Apocynaceae
*  List of subfamilies and genera of Apocynaceae - Wikipedia
The Apocynaceae family is the result of a conflation of these two families. Apocynoideae Asclepiadoideae Periplocoideae ... This is a list of subfamilies and genera of the dogbane family Apocynaceae. Apocynoideae and Rauvolfioideae are part of ... Apocynaceae sensu stricto, whilst the other three subfamilies belong to the former Asclepiadaceae. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_subfamilies_and_genera_of_Apocynaceae
*  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit:...
... total and partial synthesis of bisindole alkaloids isolated primarily from the Alstonia genus of the Apocynaceae family. The ... Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit: A Review. Md Toufiqur Rahman ... Rahman, M.T.; Tiruveedhula, V.V.N.P.B.; Cook, J.M. Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a ... "Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit: A Review." Molecules 21, no ...
https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/11/1525
*  Apocynaceae in A Checklist for the South China Botanical Garden, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P. R. China @ efloras.org
Apocynaceae A. L. Jussieu 夹竹桃科 Apocynaceae. Carissa macrophylla. Credit: Xiangying Wen ... Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some ... Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.. (Authors: Li Ping-tao; Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, David J. Middleton) ...
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=610&taxon_id=10053
*  Apocynaceae
A 51-year-old woman, with a history of drug overdose, suicide attempts and depression was admitted to the ER complaining of nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and chest tightness. She had a heart rate of 30 beats per minute, well below the… Continue Reading →. ...
https://sites.evergreen.edu/plantchemeco/category/plant-family/apocynaceae/
*  Repositório Institucional UFC: Efeito pró-erétil de uma fração rica em alcalóides isolada de aspidosperma ulei markgr. : estudo...
O gênero Aspidosperma (Apocynaceae) é conhecido por ser rico em alcalóides indólicos do tipo ioimbina. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a toxicidade, efeitos sobre o comportamento e um possível pró-erétil de uma fração rica em alcalóides isolada da casca da raiz de Aspidosperma ulei Markgr. (SF3-5). Os testes de toxicidade aguda foram realizados para determinar a DL50 em camundongos e a CL50 em Artemia sp. Os efeitos sobre o comportamento foram estudados nos testes do campo aberto, placa perfurada, labirinto em cruz elevado, "rota-rod", natação forçada e tempo de sono induzido por barbitúrico. Os estudos in vitro com a fração foram realizados em canal deferente de camundongos e corpos cavernosos de coelhos e humanos. Os valores estimados para a DL50 (i.p.) em camundongos e CL50 em Artemia sp. foram na ordem de 400 mg/Kg e 3,94 microg/mL, respectivamente. Os testes comportamentais em camundongos revelaram uma atividade estimulante de SF3-5 sobre o SNC mas não ...
http://www.repositorio.ufc.br/handle/riufc/2682

*  Indole alkaloid
Apocynaceae (genera Alstonia, Aspidosperma, Rauwolfia and Catharanthus), Rubiaceae (Corynanthe) and Loganiaceae (Strychnos). ...
*  Apocynaceae
Pachypodium (Apocynaceae): taxonomy, habitats and cultivation. Balkema. pp. 1-82. ISBN 978-90-5410-485-8. Apocynaceae in BoDD ... Some genera of Apocynaceae, such as Adenium, have milky latex apart from their sap, and others, such as Pachypodium, have clear ... Apocynaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes trees, shrubs, herbs, stem succulents, and vines, commonly called the ... This is true of many contained in species of plants from the Apocynaceae family, which include several that are extremely ...
*  Flora of Turkey, Apocynaceae
This article describes Flora of Turkey that belong to the Apocynaceae family of flowering plants. Amsonia Decne. Bluestar ...
*  List of subfamilies and genera of Apocynaceae
The Apocynaceae family is the result of a conflation of these two families. Apocynoideae Asclepiadoideae Periplocoideae ... This is a list of subfamilies and genera of the dogbane family Apocynaceae. Apocynoideae and Rauvolfioideae are part of ... Apocynaceae sensu stricto, whilst the other three subfamilies belong to the former Asclepiadaceae. ...
*  Seredamine
Apocynaceae)". Phytochemistry. 60 (3): 315-20. PMID 12031452. ...
*  Quebracho tree
Apocynaceae; Surinam Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schlecht. ; Apocynaceae; Paraguay, Argentina Poeppigia procera Presl. ; ... Apocynaceae; Paraguay, Argentina Schinopsis heterophylla, the Quebracho colorado mestizo as Quebracho de cerro Diphysa ... of the same family the white quebracho or Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco of the family Apocynaceae A fourth species, Jodina ...
*  Alstonia boonei
... is a very large, deciduous, tropical-forest tree belonging to the dogbane family, i.e. Apocynaceae. It is ... Like many other members of the Apocynaceae (a family rich in toxic and medicinal species), A. boonei contains alkaloids and ...
*  Akuammine
Apocynaceae)". European Journal of Pharmacology. 350 (1): 101-8. PMID 9683021. Lewin, G; Le Ménez, P; Rolland, Y; Renouard, A; ...
*  Odontadenia
Series of revisions of Apocynaceae XLV. Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 67(1-4): 381-477 Gentry, A. H. 2001. Apocynaceae. In: W.D ... Odontadenia is a genus of plant in the family Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1841. It is native to southern Mexico ...
*  Morrenia odorata
... , the latexplant or strangler vine, is a plant in the Apocynaceae family, which is native to South America ( ... Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Convolvulaceae, Bignoniaceae, Campanulaceae in A. Cabrera. 4(5): 6-12; 298-302. In A. L. Cabrera ( ... Apocynaceae subfam. Asclepiadoideae). Kew Bulletin 58(3): 713-721 Forzza, R. C. 2010. Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil http:// ...
*  Morrenia
... is a genus of flowering plants in the Apocynaceae family, first described as a genus in 1838. It is native to South ... Apocynaceae subfam. Asclepiadoideae). Kew Bulletin 58(3): 713-721. The Plant List, genus Morrenia The Plant List, Morrenia ...
*  Collared titi
Apocynaceae (1%); Aquifoliaceae (1%), Meliaceae (0.88%); Sapotaceae (0.85%); Burseraceae (0.81%); Apocynaceae (0.67%); ...
*  White-fronted capuchin
Apocynaceae (1); Orchidaceae (1); Araceae (1); Rubiaceae (1); Bignoriaceae (1). In terms of importance value, palms are highly ...
*  Liana
Apocynaceae Odontadenia spp. Strophanthus - several spp. including S. sarmentosus Arecaceae (Palmae) Calamoideae - rattans: ... Apocynaceae s.l.) of Madagascar: phylogeny, biomechanics, and development". American Journal of Botany. 92 (8): 1381-96. doi: ...
*  Joseph Decaisne
Asclepiadaceae or Apocynaceae s. l.); Amorphophallus Blume ex Decne. (Araceae) and Leptopus (Euphorbiaceae s. l. or ... Apocynaceae); Vancouveria (with C.Morren) (Berberidaceae); Ostryopsis (Betulaceae); Dipterygium (Capparidaceae); Brassaiopsis, ...
*  Pachypodium ambongense
Rapanarivo, S.H.J.V., Lavranos, J.J., Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., and Röösli, W. Pachypodium (Apocynaceae): Taxonomy, habitats and ... Pachypodium ambongense belongs to the dogbane family Apocynaceae, which has recently been merged with the milkweed family ... Liliaceae); Pachypodium rutenbergianum (Apocynaceae); Pandanus sp. (Pandanaceae); Uncarina sakalava Uncarina perrieri ( ...
*  Reveal system
Apocynaceae superorder 2. Solananae order 1. Solanales family 1. Solanaceae family 2. Sclerophylacaceae family 3. Goetzeaceae ...
*  Apocynoideae
"GRIN Genera of Apocynaceae tribe Apocyneae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. ... "GRIN Genera of Apocynaceae tribe Echiteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. ... "GRIN Genera of Apocynaceae tribe Malouetieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture ... "GRIN Genera of Apocynaceae tribe Mesechiteae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture ...
*  Aspidosperma tomentosum
2013). Apocynaceae s. str. do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de ...
*  Henry Georges Fourcade
Apocynaceae: Carissa cordata (Mill.) Fourc. Asclepiadaceae: Tylophora cordata (Thunb.) Fourc. Asphodelaceae: Bulbine altissima ...
*  Haplophyton crooksii
Apocynaceae A.L. Juss., Dogbane Family. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 27:164-168.. ...
*  List of culinary fruits
Apocynaceae) Double coconut or coco de mer (Lodoicea maldivica; Arecaceae) Dragonfruit / pitaya (Hylocereus spp.; Cactaceae) ... Apocynaceae) Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas; Cornaceae) Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum; Myrtaceae) Cranberry ( ... Apocynaceae) Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra; Flacourtiaceae) Kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol; Annonaceae) Keule (Gomortega ... Apocynaceae) Mango (Mangifera indica; Anacardiaceae) Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana; Guttiferae) Manila tamarind ( ...
*  Himatanthus
Apocynaceae). Taxon 62: 1304-1307. Morokawa, R. & al. (2013). Apocynaceae s. str. do Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra, ... Himatanthus is a genus of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae, first described as a genus in 1819. It is native to Panama ...
*  Wildlife of Somalia
Apocynaceae Whitesloanea 1 spp. Apocynaceae Puccionia 1 spp. Cleomaceae Afrotrichloris 2 spp. Gramineae Pseudozoysia 1 spp. ...
*  Neobracea bahamensis
... is a species of flowering plant in the family Apocynaceae that is endemic to Cuba and several islands in ... Woodson, Jr., Robert E. (1936). "Studies in the Apocynaceae. IV. The American genera of Echitoideae (contd.)". Annals of the ...

(1/70) Medicinal foodstuffs. XXIV. Chemical constituents of the processed leaves of Apocynum venetum L.: absolute stereostructures of apocynosides I and II.

Two new ionone glucosides, named apocynosides I and II, were isolated from the roasted leaves of Apocynum venetum L. together with nine known compounds. The absolute stereostructures of apocynosides I and II were determined by chemical and physicochemical evidence, which included the application of a modified Mosher's method and the circular dichroism helicity rule.  (+info)

(2/70) A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba.

Himatanthus sucuuba is an Amazonian tree with abundant, yet conflicting ethnobotanical information. Investigation of the polar and non-polar constituents led to the isolation of plumericin, a bioactive spirolactone iridoid, and four known pentacylic triterpenes: lupeol acetate, lupeol cinnamate, lupeol beta-phenyl propionate, and alpha-amyrin cinnamate.  (+info)

(3/70) Morphological and ultrastructural diversity of orbicules in relation to evolutionary tendencies in apocynaceae s.L.

Minute granules of sporopollenin, called orbicules, can be observed on the innermost tangential and/or radial walls of secretory tapetum cells. Orbicules were investigated in 62 species (50 genera) of Apocynaceae s.l. using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Orbicules were found in 43 species (34 genera) distributed amongst the subfamilies Rauvolfioideae, Apocynoideae, Periplocoideae, and in the genus Riocreuxia (Asclepiadoideae). Absence of orbicules is apparent in Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae (except Riocreuxia). The orbicule types described are based on observed morphological and ultrastructural variation. Of the six orbicule types previously described, Type I and Type II orbicules are lacking. In the majority of species, Type III orbicules were recorded in addition to Types IV, V and VI. In this study we suggest that embedded Type VI orbicules are more derived. A correlation between orbicule typology and evolutionary tendencies in Apocynaceae s.l. palynology was found. A trend was observed from the presence of Type III orbicules in the majority of species belonging to the basal group of genera characterized by colporate to porate single pollen grains, or 3-6-porate tetrads, towards the more derived embedded Type VI orbicules in the more advanced Periplocoideae genera with multiporate tetrads or pollinia. Orbicule data have proven not to be useful for evaluating tribal delimitation within the Apocynaceae s.l. contrary to the Rubiaceae and Loganiaceae s.l.  (+info)

(4/70) Wrightiamines A and B, two new cytotoxic pregnane alkaloids from Wrightia javanica.

Two new pregnane alkaloids, wrightiamines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the extract of the tropical Apocynaceous plant Wrightia javanica collected in Thailand, and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Wrightiamine B (2) was preparaed from 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one to establish the configuration of the C-20 position as S. Wrightiamine A (1) exhibited cytotoxic activity against vincristine-resistant murine leukemia P388 cells.  (+info)

(5/70) Generic delimitations in tuberous Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) from Africa and Madagascar.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The number of genera included in Apocynaceae subfamily Periplocoideae is a matter of debate. DNA sequences are used here as an independent dataset to clarify generic relationships and classification of the tuberous periplocoid genera and to address the question of the phylogenetic interpretation of pollinia formation in Schlechterella. METHODS: Representatives of nearly all African and Malagasy genera of Periplocoideae possessing root tubers were analysed using ITS and plastid DNA sequence characters. RESULTS: Sequence data from non-coding molecular markers (ITS of nrDNA and the trnT-L and trnL-F spacers as well as the trnL intron of plastid DNA) give support for a broad taxonomic concept of Raphionacme including Pentagonanthus. Together with Schlechterella, which is sister to Raphionacme, all Raphionacme-like taxa form a derived monophyletic group of somewhat diverse species. Sister to the Schlechterella/Raphionacme clade is a clade comprising Stomatostemma and the not truly tuberous vine Mondia. In the combined analysis, sister to these two clades combined is a clade formed by Petopentia natalensis and Periploca. CONCLUSIONS: The recent inclusion of the monotypic South African Petopentia in the monotypic Malagasy endemic Ischnolepis is to be rejected. The Malagasy Camptocarpus is sister to the remainder of Periplocoideae in the ITS and combined analyses, and a Malagasy origin for the subfamily is discussed.  (+info)

(6/70) New cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside from the seeds of Cerbera manghas.

A new cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside, 3beta-O-(2'-O-acetyl-alpha-L-thevetosyl)-14beta-hydroxy-7-en-5beta-card-20(22)-en olide, (7,8-dehydrocerberin), together with five known cardenolides, 17beta-neriifolin, deacetyltanghinin, tanghinin, cerberin and 2'-O-acetyl-cerleaside A were isolated from the seeds of Cerbera manghas L. Their structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques as well as UV, IR and mass spectral data. 7,8-Dehydrocerberin, deacetyltanghinin and tanghinin exhibited cytotoxic activities against oral human epidermoid carcinoma (KB), human breast cancer cell (BC) and human small cells lung cancer (NCI-H187).  (+info)

(7/70) Characterization of graphislactone A as the antioxidant and free radical-scavenging substance from the culture of Cephalosporium sp. IFB-E001, an endophytic fungus in Trachelospermum jasminoides.

The extracts derived from cultures of 1626 endophytic strains harbored in Trachelospermum jasminoides were assayed for more potent antioxidant and/or free radical-scavenging agents. The free radical-scavenging assessment was carried out using l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical assays, and the antioxidant actions on linoleic acid and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) models. After extensive spectroscopic analyses, graphislactone A was characterized as the most bioactive secondary metabolite of endophytic Cephalosporium sp. IFB-E001 with its free radical-scavenging (in a dose-dependent manner) and antioxidant activities ascertained in vitro to be stronger than those of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid, the two positive references coassayed in the study. From the demonstrated efficacy of graphislactone A in preventing and protecting against oxidative injury, it can be predicted that this metabolite could be a potential agent in the management of oxidative damage-initiated diseases.  (+info)

(8/70) Morphological and secretory characterization of extrafloral nectaries in plants of coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Morphological descriptions of the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory attributes. In this study a morphological/secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on several plant species in a tropical coastal community is made and the implications of gland attributes discussed from a functional perspective. METHODS: The morphology and nectar secretion of the EFNs of 20 plant species are characterized through scanning electron microscopy, histochemical detection of reducing sugars (Fehling's reagent) and nectar volume/concentration estimates. KEY RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent of plant species in coastal communities had EFNs on vegetative structures and 35 % of species had glands on reproductive and vegetative organs. The Fabaceae is the plant family with the most species with EFNs and most diversity of gland morphologies. Four types of vascularized nectaries and four of glandular trichomes are described; sugar-secreting trichomes are characterized using Fehling's technique, and the first descriptions of unicellular and peltate trichomes functioning as EFNs are provided. Glands of ten plant species and six genera are described for the first time. Four plant species possess more than one morphological type of EFN. Eleven species have EFNs in more than one location or organ. More complex glands secrete more nectar, but are functionally homologous to the aggregations of numerous secretory trichomes on specific and valuable plant organs. CONCLUSION: Important diversity of EFN morphology was foundin the coastal plant community studied. Both vascularized and non-vascularized EFNs are observed in plants and, for the latter, previously non-existent morpho-secretory characterizations are provided with a methodological approach to study them. It is recommended that studies relating EFN attributes (i.e. morphology, distribution) with their differential visitation by insects (i.e. ants) and the cost of maintenance to the plants are carried out to understand the evolution of these glands.  (+info)